Projects


B3: Invasive Loosely-Coupled MPSoCs

Principal Investigators:

Prof. Herkersdorf, Prof. Henkel

Scientific Researchers:

Anton Ivanov, Ravi Kumar Pujari, Dr. Muhammad Shafique, Benjamin Vogel, Dr. Thomas Wild

Abstract

Principal focus of this subproject is on enabling standard IP-based MPSoC platforms to benefit from the invasive computing and programming paradigm in a power-efficient way. This goal is tackled by introducing a) a fast decentralised hardware mechanism for distributing processing requests among CPU cores according to a policy determined by the run-time support system (iRTSS), and b) a corresponding management policy for operating the invasive platform in compliance with overall power and reliability optimisation targets.

Synopsis

Subproject B3 strives to enable MPSoC platforms consisting of loosely-coupled standard RISC processors for performance-optimised and energy-efficient invasive computing. The major research will be on (1) functional extensions on the hardware level to optimise latency and software overhead when distributing application threads among processor cores. A further major contribution will be (2) extensions for providing a low power infrastructure designed for the resource-aware application paradigm of invasive computing. Offloading latency-critical tasks from software to dedicated hardware modules as well as dynamic utilisation management of individual cores contribute to increased power efficiency of the invasive many-core SoC. To guarantee consistent operation of the platform, CIC-based distribution of threads and power gating will be tackled in a coordinated manner. In order to achieve high processing performance and at the same time optimised power efficiency the following topics will be investigated:

  • In order to optimise invasive programming on standard RISC-based MPSoC platforms, we propose Dynamic Many-Core i-let Controllers (CICs) as macroarchitectural hardware extensions to supplement the software-based iRTSS. CICs assist and accelerate infection of processor cores, that is, the binding of i-lets. The idea is to delegate those functions to CICs that can be implemented with much lower latency and power dissipation in hardware, resulting in higher performance of an invasive MPSoC. Thus, the binding decision will be decentralised and takes local status information into account. This will lead to better scalability in terms of the number of processor cores per chip and higher fault-tolerance. Major scientific goals are to define an appropriate task split and interplay between CICs and the iRTSS, and the optimal representation and execution of rules implementing the policy of the iRTSS to distribute i-lets.
  • The introduction of CICs implies additional complexity and hardware overhead. Therefore, the optimisation of the trade off between the associated hardware overhead, and the gain in performance and power efficiency has to be investigated and balanced.
  • For the low power infrastructure we plan to implement Virtual Power Gating (ViPG) in which voltage is switched off at the application level. When it is decided that an application is to be gated (based on knowledge from the application design or the iRTSS), ViPG uses data gathered from CICs or the iRTSS to determine which actual hardware components are involved. If the energy saving from ViPG exceeds the required costs, these hardware components are then gated.

Approach

The envisioned tiled architecture

In the tiled architecture, the CiC is envisioned to assign the i-lets to the cores within a tile of loosely-coupled Leon cores or iCores based on constraints given by the application developer. The interconnection between the power management infrastructure and the i-let assignment is fulfilled by the Energy Manager (EM) within the CIC. The power management policy is tailored to the application's needs and is influenced through hints about the expected idle time expressed by the application.

Publications

[1] Santiago Pagani, Muhammad Shafique, and Jörg Henkel. Design space exploration and run-time adaptation for multi-core resource management under performance and power constraints. In Soonhoi Ha and Jürgen Teich, editors, Handbook of Hardware/Software Codesign, volume 1, pages 301–332. Springer, September 2017. [ DOI ]
[2] Jörg Henkel. The triangle of power density, circuit degradation and reliability. Invited Keynote Speech, 30th IEEE International System-On-Chip Conference (SoCC 2017), Munich, Germany, September 7, 2017.
[3] Heba Khdr, Santiago Pagani, Éricles R. Sousa, Vahid Lari, Anuj Pathania, Frank Hannig, Muhammad Shafique, Jürgen Teich, and Jörg Henkel. Power density-aware resource management for heterogeneous tiled multicores. IEEE Transactions on Computers (TC), 66(3):488–501, March 1, 2017. [ DOI ]
[4] Anuj Pathania, Heba Khdr, Muhammad Shafique, Tulika Mitra, and Jörg Henkel. Distributed scheduling for many-cores using cooperative game theory. In Design Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), March 2017.
[5] Santiago Pagani, Heba Khdr, Jian-Jia Chen, Muhammad Shafique, Minming Li, and Jörg Henkel. Thermal safe power: Efficient thermal-aware power budgeting for manycore systems in dark silicon. In Amir M. Rahmani, Pasi Liljeberg, Ahmed Hemani, Axel Jantsch, and Hannu Tenhunen, editors, The Dark Side of Silicon. Springer, 2017.
[6] Santiago Pagani, Heba Khdr, Jian-Jia Chen, Muhammad Shafique, Minming Li, and Jörg Henkel. Thermal safe power (TSP): Efficient power budgeting for heterogeneous manycore systems in dark silicon. IEEE Transactions on Computers (TC), 66(1):147–162, 2017. Feature Paper of the Month. [ DOI ]
[7] Santiago Pagani, Anuj Pathania, Muhammad Shafique, Jian-Jia Chen, and Jörg Henkel. Energy efficiency for clustered heterogeneous multicores. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems (TPDS), 28(5):1315–1330, 2017. [ DOI ]
[8] Philipp Wagner, Thomas Wild, and Andreas Herkersdorf. Diasys: Improving soc insight through on-chip diagnosis. Journal of Systems Architecture, 2017. [ DOI ]
[9] P. Wagner, L. Li, T. Wild, A. Mayer, and A. Herkersdorf. What happens on an mpsoc stays on an mpsoc - unfortunately! In 2016 International Symposium on Integrated Circuits (ISIC), pages 1–2, December 2016. [ DOI ]
Keywords: hardware-software codesign;microprocessor chips;program diagnostics;program testing;system-on-chip;MPSoC;hardware-software systems;multiprocessor system-on-chip;on-chip observations;software diagnosis;Bandwidth;Computer bugs;Hardware;Linux;Observability;Software;System-on-chip
[10] Santiago Pagani. Power, Energy, and Thermal Management for Clustered Manycores. Dissertation, Chair for Embedded Systems (CES), Department of Computer Science, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany, November 24, 2016. Received Summa cum Laude and the ACM SIGBED Paul Caspi Memorial Dissertation Award. [ DOI ]
[11] Santiago Pagani, Lars Bauer, Qingqing Chen, Elisabeth Glocker, Frank Hannig, Andreas Herkersdorf, Heba Khdr, Anuj Pathania, Ulf Schlichtmann, Doris Schmitt-Landsiedel, Mark Sagi, Éricles Sousa, Philipp Wagner, Volker Wenzel, Thomas Wild, and Jörg Henkel. Dark silicon management: An integrated and coordinated cross-layer approach. it – Information Technology, 58(6):297–307, September 16, 2016. [ DOI ]
[12] Anas Toma, Santiago Pagani, Jian-Jia Chen, Wolfgang Karl, and Jörg Henkel. An energy-efficient middleware for computation offloading in real-time embedded systems. In 22nd IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA), August 2016.
[13] Mark Sagi and Andreas Herkersdorf. On-chip diagnosis of multicore platforms for power management. Workshop Presentation, DTC 2016, The Munich Workshop on Design Technology Coupling, Munich, Germany, June 30, 2016.
[14] Ravi Kumar Pujari, Thomas Wild, and Andreas Herkersdorf. Tcu: A multi-objective hardware thread mapping unit for hpc clusters. In M. Julian Kunkel, Pavan Balaji, and Jack Dongarra, editors, High Performance Computing: 31st International Conference, ISC High Performance 2016, Frankfurt, Germany, June 19-23, 2016, Proceedings, pages 39–58. Springer International Publishing, June 2016. [ DOI ]
[15] Jörg Henkel, Santiago Pagani, Heba Khdr, Florian Kriebel, Semeen Rehman, and Muhammad Shafique. Towards performance and reliability-efficient computing in the dark silicon era. In Proceedings of the 19th Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), March 2016.
[16] Hans Michael Gerndt, Michael Glaß, Sri Parameswaran, and Barry L. Rountree. Dark Silicon: From Embedded to HPC Systems (Dagstuhl Seminar 16052). Dagstuhl Reports, 6(1):224–244, 2016. [ DOI ]
[17] Philipp Wagner, Thomas Wild, and Andreas Herkersdorf. Diasys: On-chip trace analysis for multi-processor system-on-chip. In Architecture of Computing Systems (ARCS'16). Springer, 2016.
[18] Muhammad Usman Karim Khan. Towards Computational Efficiency of Next Generation Multimedia Systems. Dissertation, Chair for Embedded Systems (CES), Department of Computer Science, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany, December 21, 2015.
[19] Santiago Pagani, Jian-Jia Chen, Muhammad Shafique, and Jörg Henkel. Thermal-aware power budgeting for dark silicon chips. In Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Low-Power Dependable Computing (LPDC) at the International Green and Sustainable Computing Conference (IGSC), December 2015.
[20] M. Shafique and J. Henkel. Mitigating power density and temperature problems in the nano-era. In IEEE/ACM 34th International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), November 2, 2015. Special Session Paper.
[21] Jörg Henkel. Dark silicon and dependability. Keynote Talk, International Symposium on Computer Architecture & Digital Systems (CADS), October 8, 2015.
[22] Santiago Pagani, Muhammad Shafique, Heba Khdr, Jian-Jia Chen, and Jörg Henkel. seBoost: Selective boosting for heterogeneous manycores. In 10th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Hardware/Software Codesign and System Synthesis (CODES+ISSS), pages 104–113, October 2015. [ DOI ]
[23] R. K. Pujari, T. Wild, and A. Herkersdorf. A hardware-based multi-objective thread mapper for tiled manycore architectures. In Computer Design (ICCD), 2015 33rd IEEE International Conference on, pages 459–462, October 2015. [ DOI ]
[24] J. Henkel, H. Bukhari, S. Garg, M. U. K. Khan, H. Khdr, F. Kriebel, U. Ogras, S. Parameswaran, and M. Shafique. Dark silicon - from computation to communication. In International Symposium on Networks-on-Chip (NOCS), September 2015. Invited Special Session Paper.
[25] Santiago Pagani, Jian-Jia Chen, and Jörg Henkel. Energy and peak power efficiency analysis for the single voltage approximation (SVA) scheme. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems (TCAD), 34(9):1415–1428, September 2015. [ DOI ]
[26] Andreas Herkersdorf. What happens on an MPSoC stays on an MPSoC unfortunately! Keynote Talk at MPSoC Forum, July 13, 2015.
[27] M. U. K. Khan, M. Shafique, and J. Henkel. Hierarchical power budgeting for dark silicon chips. In ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED), pages 213–218, July 2015. [ DOI ]
[28] A. Pathania, S. Pagani, M. Shafique, and J. Henkel. Power management for mobile games on asymmetric multi-cores. In ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED), pages 243–248, July 2015. [ DOI ]
[29] D. Gnad, M. Shafique, F. Kriebel, S. Rehman, D. Sun, and J. Henkel. Hayat: Harnessing dark silicon and variability for aging deceleration and balancing. In 52nd Design Automation Conference (DAC), pages 180:1–180:6, June 2015. HiPEAC Paper Award. [ DOI ]
[30] J. Henkel, H. Khdr, S. Pagani, and M. Shafique. New trends in dark silicon. In Proceedings of the 52nd ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC), pages 119:1–119:6. ACM, June 2015. HiPEAC Paper Award. [ DOI ]
[31] M. U. K. Khan, M. Shafique, and J. Henkel. Hardware-software co-design for next generation dark silicon multimedia systems. Ph.D. Forum at the ACM/EDAC/IEEE 52nd Design Automation Conference (DAC), June 2015.
[32] H. Khdr, S. Pagani, M. Shafique, and J. Henkel. Thermal constrained resource management for mixed ilp-tlp workloads in dark silicon chips. In 52nd Design Automation Conference (DAC), pages 179:1–179:6. ACM, June 2015. HiPEAC Paper Award. [ DOI ]
[33] Santiago Pagani, Muhammad Shafique, Jian-Jia Chen, and Jörg Henkel. Thermal-aware power budgeting for dark silicon chips (invited talk). In Workshop on System-to-Silicon Performance Modeling and Analysis at the 52nd ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC), June 2015.
[34] Jörg Henkel, Muhammad Usman Karim Khan, and Muhammad Shafique. Energy-efficient multimedia systems for high efficiency video coding. In IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), May 2015. (accepted as a reviewed Special Session paper).
[35] Philipp Wagner, Lin Li, Thomas Wild, Albrecht Mayer, and Andreas Herkersdorf. Knowledge-Based On-Chip Diagnosis for Multi-Core Systems-on-Chip. In edaWorkshop 15, pages 39–45, Dresden, Germany, May 2015.
[36] M. U. K. Khan, M. Shafique, and J. Henkel. Hardware-software co-design for next generation dark silicon multimedia systems. Ph.D. Forum at the IEEE/ACM 16th Design Automation and Test in Europe Conference (DATE). Ph.D. Forum Best Poster Award, March 2015.
[37] Santiago Pagani, Jian-Jia Chen, Muhammad Shafique, and Jörg Henkel. MatEx: Efficient transient and peak temperature computation for compact thermal models. In 18th Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), pages 1515–1520, March 2015. [ DOI ]
[38] Muhammad Shafique. Run-time resource and reliability management in dark silicon many-core chips. Keynote Talk, International Workshop on Multi-Objective Many-Core Design (MOMAC), March 2015.
[39] Muhammad Shafique, Dennis Gnad, Siddharth Garg, and Jörg Henkel. Variability-aware dark silicon management in on-chip many-core systems. In 18th IEEE/ACM Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), March 2015.
[40] Waqaas Munawar, Heba Khdr, Santiago Pagani, Muhammad Shafique, Jian-Jia Chen, and Jörg Henkel. Peak power management for scheduling real-time tasks on heterogeneous many-core systems. In 20th IEEE International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS), December 2014.
[41] M. Shafique and S. Rehman. Designing and architecting advanced embedded systems. Tutorial at National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), December 2014.
[42] Felipe Sampaio, Muhammad Shafique, Bruno Zatt, Sergio Bampi, and Jörg Henkel. Energy-efficient architecture for advanced video memory. In IEEE/ACM 33rd International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), November 2014.
[43] Muhammad Shafique. Application-driven power management for on-chip memories. Invited Talk at Memory Architecture and Organization Workshop (MeAOW) at ESWeek, October 16, 2014.
[44] Jörg Henkel. Dependability of on-chip systems in the dark silicon era. Keynote Talk, 32nd IEEE International Conference on Computer Design (ICCD), October 2014.
[45] Santiago Pagani, Heba Khdr, Waqaas Munawar, Jian-Jia Chen, Muhammad Shafique, Minming Li, and Jörg Henkel. TSP: Thermal safe power - efficient power budgeting for many-core systems in dark silicon. In 9th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Hardware/Software Codesign and System Synthesis (CODES+ISSS), pages 10:1–10:10, October 2014. Best Paper Award. [ DOI ]
[46] Muhammad Shafique, Siddharth Garg, Tulika Mitra, Sri Parameswaran, and Jörg Henkel. Dark silicon as a challenge for hardware/software co-design: Invited special session paper. In IEEE/ACM International Conference on Hardware/Software Codesign and System Synthesis (CODES+ISSS), October 2014. [ DOI ]
[47] Muhammad Shafique, Muhammad Usman Karim Khan, and Jörg Henkel. Power efficient and workload balanced tiling for parallelized high efficiency video coding. In 21st IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), October 2014.
[48] Felipe Sampaio, Muhammad Shafique, Bruno Zatt, Sergio Bampi, and Jörg Henkel. Content-driven memory pressure balancing and video memory power management for parallel high efficiency video coding. In ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED), August 2014. [ DOI ]
[49] M. U. K. Khan, M. Shafique, and J. Henkel. Application-specific hierarchical power management for multicast high efficiency video coding. In ACM/EDAC/IEEE 51st Design Automation Conference (DAC), June 2014. Designer Track Best Poster Award.
[50] Muhammad Shafique, Siddharth Garg, Jörg Henkel, and Diana Marculescu. The eda challenges in the dark silicon era: Temperature, reliability, and variability perspectives. In 51st Design Automation Conference (DAC), June 2014. [ DOI ]
[51] Jörg Henkel. The dark silicon problem in multi-core systems – invasive computing as a solution. Keynote Talk, Thematic Session at HiPEAC Computer Systems Week, May 13, 2014.
[52] Muhammad Usman Karim Khan, Muhammad Shafique, and Jörg Henkel. Software architecture of high efficiency video coding for many-core systems with power-efficient workload balancing. In Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), March 2014. [ DOI ]
[53] F. Sampaio, M. Shafique, B. Zatt, S. Bampi, and J. Henkel. dsvm: Energy-efficient distributed scratchpad video memory architecture for the next-generation high efficiency video coding. In Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), March 2014. [ DOI ]
[54] Muhammad Shafique, Lars Bauer, and Jörg Henkel. Adaptive energy management for dynamically reconfigurable processors. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems (TCAD), 33(1):50–63, January 2014. [ DOI ]
[55] Muhammad Shafique and Jörg Henkel. Low power design of the next-generation high efficiency video coding. In 19th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC), pages 274–281, January 2014. [ DOI ]
[56] Santiago Pagani and Jian-Jia Chen. Energy efficient task partitioning based on the single frequency approximation scheme. In Proceedings of the 34th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), pages 308–318, December 2013. [ DOI ]
[57] Muhammad Usman Karim Khan, Muhammad Shafique, and Jörg Henkel. Amber: Adaptive energy management for on-chip hybrid video memories. In IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), pages 405–412, November 2013.
[58] Muhammad Shafique and Jörg Henkel. Agent-based distributed power management for kilo-core processors. In IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), pages 153–160, November 2013.
[59] Santiago Pagani and Jian-Jia Chen. Energy efficiency analysis for the single frequency approximation (SFA) scheme. In Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA), pages 82–91, August 2013. Best Paper Award. [ DOI ]
[60] Bruno Zatt, Muhammad Shafique, Sergio Bampi, and Jörg Henkel. 3d video coding for embedded devices: Energy efficient algorithms and architectures. In Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, May 2013.
[61] Felipe Sampaio, Bruno Zatt, Muhammad Shafique, Luciano Agostini, Sergio Bampi, and Jörg Henkel. Energy-efficient memory hierarchy for motion and disparity estimation in multiview video coding. In Proceedings of Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference (DATE), pages 665–670, March 2013. [ DOI ]
[62] Muhammad Shafique, Benjamin Vogel, and Jörg Henkel. Self-adaptive hybrid dynamic power management for many-core systems. In Proceedings of Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference (DATE), pages 51–56, March 2013. [ DOI ]
[63] Jörg Henkel, Andreas Herkersdorf, Lars Bauer, Thomas Wild, Michael Hübner, Ravi Kumar Pujari, Artjom Grudnitsky, Jan Heisswolf, Aurang Zaib, Benjamin Vogel, Vahid Lari, and Sebastian Kobbe. Invasive manycore architectures. In Proceedings of the 17th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC), pages 193–200, January 2012. [ DOI ]
[64] Ravi Kumar Pujari, Thomas Wild, Andreas Herkersdorf, Benjamin Vogel, and Jörg Henkel. Hardware assisted thread assignment for RISC based MPSoCs in invasive computing. In Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Integrated Circuits (ISIC), pages 106–109, December 2011. [ DOI ]
[65] Muhammad Shafique. Architectures for Adaptive Low-Power Embedded Multimedia Systems. Dissertation, Chair for Embedded Systems (CES), Department of Computer Science, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany, January 31, 2011.
[66] Jürgen Teich, Jörg Henkel, Andreas Herkersdorf, Doris Schmitt-Landsiedel, Wolfgang Schröder-Preikschat, and Gregor Snelting. Invasive computing: An overview. In Michael Hübner and Jürgen Becker, editors, Multiprocessor System-on-Chip – Hardware Design and Tool Integration, pages 241–268. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011. [ DOI ]
[67] G. Frantz, J. Henkel, J. Rabaey, T. Schneider, M. Wolf, and U. Batur. Ultra-low power signal processing. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 27(2):149–154, 2010. [ DOI ]
[68] Jürgen Teich. Invasive algorithms and architectures. it - Information Technology, 50(5):300–310, 2008.
[69] Naehyuck Chang and Jörg Henkel. Guest editorial: Current trends in low-power design. ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems (TODAES), 16:1:1–1:8. [ DOI ]